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Lean Manufacturing and Gemba Walks

Lean Manufacturing and Gemba Walks

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Introduction to Gemba walks

Gemba walks are essential in lean manufacturing management. This mindset strongly emphasizes reducing waste, increasing productivity, and constantly striving for improvement. "Gemba" is the Japanese word for "true location." This refers to a location in a business where value is created, such as a factory floor, office workspace, or dining room. Understanding the task, asking questions, and learning by observing the process is all part of walking in Gemba. It entails actively seeking potential improvements while taking note of the current situation.


Gemba walks are essential for managers and leaders to understand their employees' issues and the gap between what should be and should be. Being present at the gemba, observing, and engaging with the process makes it possible to see how the job is being done and where there is room for improvement.

Gemba has its origins in lean management

The Toyota Production System is built on the Gemba Walk concept, also a lean management forerunner. It was common practice at Toyota for management to walk the shop floor frequently to observe operations, speak with frontline employees, and identify potential areas for improvement. The central business region then adopted this approach as part of a Lean management initiative to boost productivity and eliminate waste in all forms.

Gemba Walks are an effective lean tool because they value people, processes, and continuous improvement. Gemba walks are not intended to impose procedures or identify flaws. They are intended to show respect for the people involved, comprehend the process, and identify improvement areas.

Gemba Walk Principles for Success

Following a few fundamental principles are required for successful walking on the Gemba:

  • The Gemba Walks are built on a foundation of respect for people. Respect implies that all people's ideas and contributions are valued. People are never held accountable for problems or errors; instead, the emphasis is on process improvement.

  • Managers must go to where the work is being done. This allows them to observe the process and understand the situation firsthand.

  • Ask Why: The Gemba walks include probing questions to understand why things are done the way they are and to stimulate process improvement reflection.

  • Focus on the process rather than the people: The goal is to identify process improvements rather than individual flaws.

These guidelines are essential for ensuring that Gemba's walks are constructive, respectful, and effective in continuous improvement.

Unleashing the Surveillance Power

When moving through the Gemba, the ability to observe is critical. By closely scrutinizing the process, managers can identify inefficiencies or issues that may not be obvious from a distance. They could be inefficient movements, extra steps, stumbling blocks, flaws, or safety hazards. Paying attention to these details allows you to identify areas for improvement that may not be apparent when viewing aggregated data or reports.

The value of objective, open-minded observation cannot be overstated. This method frequently yields unexpected insights and leads to game-changing breakthroughs that would not have been considered otherwise. Managers must observe the process, not as they believe it should be.

Using Gemba Walks to Identify Waste

One of the most important goals of Gemba Walks is waste identification. In lean manufacturing, everything that does not add value to the customer is considered waste. Excess production, holdups, delays, overprocessing, inventory, relocation, and flaws are all possibilities.

Identifying waste is the first step in getting rid of it. Gemba Walks are an effective method for locating this type of garbage. Managers can determine where and why waste occurs by observing the process and speaking with the workers. When losses are discovered, managers can work with employees to develop solutions and streamline procedures.

Improving Gemba Communication and Engagement

Gemba Walks are an effective method for identifying waste and inefficiencies and improving teamwork and communication within a company. Managers can meet with front-line employees, listen to their ideas and concerns, and show how much they value their contributions by visiting the Gemba.

This open dialogue fosters an environment where everyone feels safe raising concerns and suggesting changes. It promotes teamwork because management and staff work together to resolve issues and improve procedures. As a result, the workforce and the organization are more motivated and productive.

Developing a Continuous Improvement Culture

Gemba walks are critical for instilling a culture of continuous improvement. This necessitates a shift in mindset from the traditional top-down management strategy to one that encourages all employees to contribute to the company's growth.

Managers can demonstrate their commitment to continuous improvement by conducting Gemba Walks regularly and acting on the findings. This may motivate employees to take ownership of their procedures and seek ways to improve them, thereby initiating a positive feedback cycle.

This culture of continuous development can result in significant benefits such as increased effectiveness, improved quality, lower costs, and higher customer satisfaction.

Change Implementation: From Observation to Action Following the Gemba Walk

Gemba walking entails both action and passive observation. Managers should analyze their findings and suggestions after the walk, identify areas for improvement, and implement changes. When developing and implementing solutions, collaboration with frontline staff, process owners, or improvement teams may be required.

Changes brought about by the Gemba walk should be observed and evaluated to see if they result in the desired improvements. If not, further adjustments may be required. This iterative observation, action, and analysis process is part of the Lean Management philosophy of continuous improvement.

Gemba Walks That Work

Let us use an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of Gemba Walks.

Consider a manufacturing company that has production lags and high scrap rates. Gemba Walks were implemented as part of the management team's Lean program. During their walks, they noticed that the binding machine frequently had issues, resulting in delays and flaws. They also noticed that the machine operators appeared irritated and had some suggestions to improve their dependability.

Following the tour, the managers worked with the machine operators and the maintenance team to implement the suggested upgrades. They also provided additional operator training for the equipment and established a routine maintenance schedule. The machine's dependability improved significantly, resulting in fewer delays and flaws. Furthermore, machine operators reported higher levels of job satisfaction because they felt valued and heard. This case study shows how Gemba Walks can help increase output, quality, and employee engagement.

Common Gemba Walk Misconceptions and Mistakes

Gemba walks are extremely valuable in lean management, but they can occasionally be ineffective due to misunderstandings and mistakes.

Gemba Walks are frequently misinterpreted as looking for flaws. This viewpoint has the potential to foster an atmosphere of mistrust and dread, which runs counter to the values of lean manufacturing, which place a strong emphasis on respect for others and continuous development. It is critical to dispel this myth and demonstrate that the primary goal of Gemba Walks is to raise awareness and identify opportunities for process improvement rather than to assign blame for problems or errors.

Another mistake is to use Gemba walks as a platform for micromanagement. Contrary to popular belief, the goal of a Gemba walk is not to examine every aspect of a worker's job but to gain a thorough understanding of the process and identify potential areas for improvement. Instead of giving employees the impression that they are being monitored or controlled, Gemba Walks should empower them by encouraging them to take the initiative to improve their work processes.

Another common mistake is failing to follow the Gemba walk. The success and value of Gemba Walks are dependent on careful follow-up, decisive action, and open communication. If the observations and insights gained during the Gemba walk are not used, or if there is no documentation of the actions taken in response to these insights, it may lead to alienation and a loss of faith in the process.

To avoid these pitfalls, approach Gemba Walks with courtesy, curiosity, and openness. Leaders must remember that procedures, not people, must be improved. They should also be open to criticism and genuinely interested in hearing frontline employees' concerns and opinions. You can maximize the effectiveness and benefits of your Gemba walks.


Gemba Walks are a powerful Lean Management strategy for continuous improvement. Managers can gain a thorough understanding of performance, identify waste and inefficiencies, and identify areas for improvement by traveling to where value is created, observing the process, and communicating with frontline personnel.

Gemba Walks can significantly improve productivity, quality, cost-cutting, and employee and customer satisfaction when done correctly. It fosters a culture of cooperation and respect in which everyone strives to be the best.

Gemba Walks can help you achieve your goals and continuously improve your organization, whether you run a manufacturing company looking to reduce scrap, a hospital looking to improve patient care, or a software company looking to accelerate its development process. Furthermore, Gemba walks are not limited to any particular industry or line of work. It is a versatile tool that can bring a revolutionary change in any company that values and pursues continuous employee improvement.

The first step toward continuous improvement is to visit the location where the work is being done physically. So, suppose you want to understand the reality of your workplace, engage your colleagues in meaningful dialogues about their work, and discover opportunities for change. In that case, it's time to lace up your shoes and start walking the gemba.